Картография с основами геодезии

Geodesy by the kind of tasks and methods of their solution. The concept of the general figure of the Earth. Physical surface of the Earth, level surface, geoid, ellipsoid of rotation and its parameters. Methods of representation of terrain relief on topographic maps and plans; main forms of relief and their elements; characteristic points and lines; method of representation of main forms of relief by horizontals; section height, embedding. Methods of determining the heights of horizontals and the heights of points lying between the horizontals: the slope of the line; the concept of profile; the principle and methods of its construction along the line given on the topographic map.